Redefining Uncertainty symposium paper 2022

Organising Protest:

Where is our Systems Psychodynamic thinking on

SOCIAL MOVEMENTS?

🔖 PRESENTATION

Paper (parallel)

📆  DATE

Friday 9 Sep 2022

⏰  MELBOURNE TIME

9.00 - 11.00 am

⏰  LOCAL START TIME

time start

Ms Harley McDonald-Eckersall

Ms Harley McDonald-Eckersall

Messaging and Strategy Consultant, Animal Rebellion, Australia

Harley is a social change organiser, specialising in areas of strategic communications and movement strategy. In 2016 at age 19, Harley became involved with the Animal justice movement, co-founding the organisation Young Voices for Animals with the mission to educate and inspire the next generation of animal liberation activists. In January 2020, Harley moved to the UK from Australia to work on narrative and strategy at the social movement organisation Animal Rebellion where she has focused on using social movement and narrative theory to bring the impacts of animal farming and fishing into the broader conversation around climate action. Harley has recently returned home to Australia to continue her work as a communicator, facilitator and presenter who is passionate about sharing the power of nonviolent action in creating social change.

⏰  DURATION

120 minutes

Redefining Uncertainty – what the cultural and creative movements can teach us about social movement organising

In understanding social movements we often look to the past, developing blueprints and rules which attempt to explain why some social movements succeed in their aims and others fall flat. However, what these analyses often fail to take into account is the profound uncertainty of organising for social change and the reality that past success is a poor indicator of future resonance. In order to understand social movements we should be learning from systems like them, ones which are defined by unpredictability of outcome, uncertainty of input as well as the potential for radical, transformational cultural resonance.

The cultural and creative industries have long been studied as a countercultural industry that challenges traditional notions of how to plan strategy. In 2000, Richard E. Caves outlined the principles of what had come to be known as the cultural and creative industries. Key among them was the principle of demand uncertainty. Even with all information on past success available to us, nobody knows what will be a hit until it is. This principle defines an industry where a small number of hits are the product of an enormous number of unsuccessful attempts and, among other features, seeks to explain an industry which thrives on constant innovation, diverse skills and iterative testing and development.

This paper will apply the lens of cultural and creative industries to social movements arguing that they are in fact the same kind of system, governed by similar forces and requiring a similar approach to achieve desired outcomes. Drawing from both social movement theory, cultural economics, cultural theory and writings on narrative and social change, this paper will provide a new way of viewing social movement organising which puts creative thinking, dynamic organising and innovation at the centre and which forefronts the leadership and thinking of artists and creative workers.

Grounded by the author’s experience as a social movement organiser for animal and climate justice in Australia and the UK, this paper will bring together two disciplines to draw new insights for social change organisers, grassroots activists, academics and those interested in how we can catalyse and support social change.

This paper will draw on the following sources:
Bate P, Robert G, Bevan H, (2004), Towards a million change agents: a review of the social movements literature: implications for large scale change in the NHS, NHS Modernisation Agency, http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/1133/1/million.pdf Caves, R. (2000) Creative Industries: Contracts between Art and Commerce. Harvard University Press, Cambridge (Mass)
Engler, P & Engler, M (2016). This is an uprising : how nonviolent revolt is shaping the twenty-first century. New York : Nation Books
Horkheimer, M., & Adorno, T. W. (1982). Dialectic of enlightenment. New York: Continuum.
Popovic, S., & Miller, M. I. (2015). Blueprint for revolution: How to use rice pudding, Lego men, and other nonviolent techniques to galvanize communities, overthrow dictators, or simply change the world. Spigel & Grau Trade
Shephard, B (2011). Play, creativity, and social movements : if I can’t dance, it’s not my revolution. New York. Routledge

Day(s)

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Hour(s)

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Minute(s)

:

Second(s)

Session schedule

5 MINS

Introduction

30 MINS

Paper presentation

20 MINS

Small group discussion; impressions of the paper and developing questions for the presenter

20 MINS

Discussion forum with the presenter; moderated for the speaker to elaborate their ideas

10 MINS

Discussion forum with the presenter; themes from the discussions

5 MINS

Break

30 MINS

Whole symposium open reflection discussion

Share this presentation!

Parallel Paper Presentations

The following are presenting at this time

Karen Loon

KAREN LOON

Anxious Nation – How historical anxieties shape Asian-Australians today

Harley McDonald-Eckersall

HARLEY MCDONALD-ECKERSALL

Redefining Uncertainty - what the cultural and creative movements can teach us about social movement organising

Anna Turley & Barbara Williams

ANNA TURLEY & BARBARA WILLIAMS

Building Social Justice Movements: What’s organizational role got to do with it?

Anxious Nation symposium paper 2022

Organising Protest:

Where is our Systems Psychodynamic thinking on

SOCIAL MOVEMENTS?

🔖 PRESENTATION

Paper (parallel)

📆  DATE

Friday 9 Sep 2022

⏰  MELBOURNE TIME

9.00 - 11.00 am

⏰  LOCAL START TIME

time start

Ms Karen Loon

Ms Karen Loon

Non-Executive Director, Australia

Karen Loon is a Non-Executive Director, and a former senior Big 4 partner. She has worked with the world’s leading banks and led diversity initiatives. She has qualifications in system psychodynamics and governance from INSEAD, and research interests in identity work and organisational change.

⏰  DURATION

120 minutes

Anxious Nation – How historical anxieties shape Asian-Australian today

Anxious Nation – How historical anxieties shape Asian-Australians today In 1999, in his landmark book, which explored Australia and the Rise of Asia 1850 – 1939, historian David Walker described Australia as an “anxious nation.” In 2001, cultural studies academic Ien Ang further suggested that Australia’s uneasiness with the outside world – a source of danger, threat and insecurity – continues to play out in many levels of Australian society. This includes its government policy towards Asia, particularly China. Twenty years on, during the recent pandemic, Australia locked its borders. Further, despite growing numbers of new migrants arriving in Australia since the abolition of the White Australia Policy in the 1970s, sporadic racism against Australians with Asian backgrounds remains. Many of the anxieties towards people with Asian backgrounds began during Australia’s colonialisation and have been preserved through its governing processes, legislation and organisations.

Historically, Asian-Australians have primarily remained invisible, with their voices absent in mainstream life. However, despite now making up close to 15% of the population, Asian-Australians only represent 3% of leadership positions. Some Gen X Asian-Australian leaders are now more conscious of the challenges and advocate for change in their organisations. However, Asian-Australian millennials are more impatient for change, especially since the #blacklivesmatters movement, and actively voice their views through social media.

As a country where 30% of people were born overseas and increasingly more significant numbers are skilled migrants, Australians of all backgrounds inherit collective trauma and inequities from previous generations. These anxieties continue to exist below the surface and hold long term change towards a more equable society back.

Through the lens of Asian-Australian leaders, including the author, experiences in roles and in negotiating their identity transitions in families, school and Australian work systems will be explored. The influence of intergenerational collective trauma and family values impact the leadership values of Asian-Australians. Parental and other caregiver expectations and anxieties significantly impact their behavioural attachment patterns adopted in situations of anxiety, guiding their leadership journeys. Further, transference patterns often influence the type of relationships preferred at work. Finally, family systems affect the ‘organisation in the mind’ that many Asian-Australian leaders prefer. In addition, understanding their more recent interest in a social movement for more representation of Asian-Australians in leadership positions will be examined. Their family experiences and preferences impact their roles as activists for change in their organisations and society and build the pipeline of the next generation of Asian-Australian talent. Given the Australian historical context, how effective the social movement may be in the longer term will be considered.

References (working draft)

Ang, I. (2001). On Not Speaking Chinese: Living Between Asia and the West. Routledge.

Cardona, F., & Damon, S. (2019). Family Patterns at Work: How casting light on the shadows of the past can enhance leadership in the present. In A. Obholzer & V. Z. Roberts (Eds.), The Unconscious at Work: A Tavistock Approach to Making Sense of Organizational Life (pp. 187-195). Routledge.

Ho, C. (2020). Aspiration & Anxiety: Asian Migrants and Australian Schooling. Melbourne University Press.

Long, S., & Chapman, J. (2018). Australia: Leadership Identity in the Making. In S. Western & E.-J. Garcia (Eds.), Global Leadership Perspectives: Insights and Analysis (pp. 36-43). Sage.

Loon, K. (2021). Breaking the Bamboo Ceiling: How Asian-Australians become partners in Big 4 firms in Australia. INSEAD. Singapore.

Loon, K. (2022). Fostering Culturally Diverse Leadership in Organisations: Lessons from Those who Smashed the Bamboo Ceiling. Routledge.

Tcholakian, L. A., Khapova, S. N., van de Loo, E., & Lehman, R. (2019). Collective Traumas and the Development of Leader Values: A Currently Omitted, but Increasingly Urgent, Research Area. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 1-13.

Visholm, S. (2021). Family Psychodynamics in Organizational Contexts. Routledge.

Day(s)

:

Hour(s)

:

Minute(s)

:

Second(s)

Session schedule

5 MINS

Introduction

30 MINS

Paper presentation

20 MINS

Small group discussion; impressions of the paper and developing questions for the presenter

20 MINS

Discussion forum with the presenter; moderated for the speaker to elaborate their ideas

10 MINS

Discussion forum with the presenter; themes from the discussions

5 MINS

Break

30 MINS

Whole symposium open reflection discussion

Share this presentation!

Parallel Paper Presentations

The following are presenting at this time

Karen Loon

KAREN LOON

Anxious Nation – How historical anxieties shape Asian-Australians today

Harley McDonald-Eckersall

HARLEY MCDONALD-ECKERSALL

Redefining Uncertainty - what the cultural and creative movements can teach us about social movement organising

Anna Turley & Barbara Williams

ANNA TURLEY & BARBARA WILLIAMS

Building Social Justice Movements: What’s organizational role got to do with it?

Taming the Beast symposium paper 2022

Organising Protest:

Where is our Systems Psychodynamic thinking on

SOCIAL MOVEMENTS?

🔖 PRESENTATION

Paper (parallel)

📆  DATE

Thursday 8 Sep 2022

⏰  MELBOURNE TIME

7.00 - 9.00 pm

⏰  LOCAL START TIME

time start

Mr Petros Oratis

Mr Petros Oratis

Co-founder and Organizational Consultant, The Lateral Space, the Netherlands

Petros Oratis is an organizational consultant, co-founder of The Lateral Space, visiting faculty of the systems-psychodynamic course “Inside Dynamics in Organizations” at the University of Utrecht and ISPSO and OPUS member. He has held membership and staff roles at Group Relations Conferences. He is passionate about the lateral societal dynamics, polarization and developing social dialogue. He has previously presented papers at OPUS and ISPSO. His doctoral research at the Tavistock & Portman NHS Foundation Trust, titled “On The Lateral Axis: A systems-psychodynamic study of the lateral relations of collaboration amongst senior leaders in corporate organizations”, is submitted for examination in July 2022.

⏰  DURATION

120 minutes

Taming the Beast: Exploring the lateral dynamics between the social movement and its opposition side and the need to shift from polarization to co-existence.

Social movements, that represent minority interests in society, often require an initiatory force to mobilize members, strengthen their voice and develop courage to stand their ground. This initiatory force must contain aggression, fueled by feelings of the anger and injustice. But as the social movement grows stronger in voice and presence, it also threatens the opposite side. Soon it will be attacked and become part of a strong polarizing dynamic. Its ideas will be caricatured and stereotyped and fought back with contra arguments “Black Lives Matter” will be responded with “All Lives Matter” or “Pro-choice” with “Pro-life”. Its members might find themselves tormented by even more intense feelings of injustice that originally.

The risks of staying trapped in this perpetuating dynamic are multiple: the social movement might act out the stereotypes projected on it proving opposition right; its members might remain tormented by injustice and hatred; the opposite side might grow even stronger, and the entire dynamic might get abused by the vertical axis, e.g. political leaders, to raise to power through “divide and conquer” tactics. How could the social movement abstain this seductive polarizing force of the Lateral Axis which is “feeding the beast”?

The paper uses concepts of lateral dynamics to explore the phenomenon of polarization between the social movement and its opposition. Through the psychoanalytic studies of siblings to explores how sibling envy, hatred and rivalry are necessary unavoidably initiatory stages of separation and individuation. In siblings those urges are then transformed to coexistence, through the vertical function. Mitchell’s concept of “law of the mother” (2003) proposes that the parental function is teaching siblings how individual needs can be met, without being experienced as antagonistic, and therefore social justice can be built on the premise of fairness, rather than equality.

Unfortunately, the social movement will experience parties seeking to sustain status-quo and political leaders sustaining rivalry and polarization, to gain popularity. The paper proposes that for a social movement to achieve sustainable impact, it requires two opposing operating functions: one is the mobilizing force of anger and opposition, that enables it to develop and sustain its potency. The other is the integrative function, that seeks to understand the needs, fears and desires of the opposing side, and ultimately put efforts to play with and educate it. To “tame the beast”, instead of “feeding” it, and imagining the possibility of co-existence instead of extermination.

References
Armstrong, D. (2007); The Dynamics of Lateral Relations in Changing Organizational Worlds; Organizational and Social Dynamics, 7(2), pp. 193-210.

de Gooijer, J. (2018); Doing business together: Lateral and vertical relations in the institutional partnering for a Group Relations conference; in Aram, E., Archer, C., Kelly, R., Strauss, G. and Triest, J. (eds.) Doing the Business of Group Relations Conferences: Routledge, pp. 43-59.

Halton, W. (2004); By what authority? Psychoanalytical reflections on creativity and change in relation to organizational life;, in Huffington, C., Armstrong, D., Halton, W., Hoyle, L. and Pooley, J. (eds.) Working Below the Surface : The Emotional Life of Contemporary Organizations. London: Routledge.

Long, S. (2008) The Perverse Organisation and its Deadly Sins. Taylor & Francis.
Mitchell, J. (2003) Siblings. Oxford, Polity, 2003.

Oratis, P. (2019); Polarization on the lateral axis and the breakdown of collaboration:
Where can containment and authorization be found in contemporary organizations?;, ISPSO AM2019 Perspectives on Polarties: Thinking Below The Surface, New York, June 24-30, 2019.

Stein, M. (2021); Lord of the flies: a psychoanalytic view of the gang and its processes;, Organisational and Social Dynamics, 21(1), pp. 11-27.

Day(s)

:

Hour(s)

:

Minute(s)

:

Second(s)

Session schedule

5 MINS

Introduction

30 MINS

Paper presentation

20 MINS

Small group discussion; impressions of the paper and developing questions for the presenter

20 MINS

Discussion forum with the presenter; moderated for the speaker to elaborate their ideas

10 MINS

Discussion forum with the presenter; themes from the discussions

5 MINS

Break

30 MINS

Whole symposium open reflection discussion

Share this presentation!

Parallel Paper Presentations

The following are presenting at this time

Gilles Amado

GILLES AMADO

The Anti-Vax Movement: A gateway to amalgams?

Mark Argent

MARK ARGENT

“Organising protest”, in the light of Lacan’s perverse discourses

Margo Lockhart

MARGO LOCKART

“Why He Orders the Steak. An exploration of gender differences within the animal rights movement.”

Petros Oratis

PETROS ORATIS

Taming the Beast: Exploring the lateral dynamics between the social movement and its opposition side and the need to shift from polarization to co-existence.

Why He Orders the Steak symposium paper 2022

Organising Protest:

Where is our Systems Psychodynamic thinking on

SOCIAL MOVEMENTS?

🔖 PRESENTATION

Paper (parallel)

📆  DATE

Thursday 8 Sep 2022

⏰  MELBOURNE TIME

7.00 - 9.00 pm

⏰  LOCAL START TIME

time start

Ms Margo Lockhart

Ms Margo Lockhart

Freelance coach & facilitator, Margo Lockhart & Associates, Australia

Margo Lockhart is a freelance facilitator, designer and coach with a reputation for developing trust and rapport in the working environment. She regularly facilitates management and leadership programs, as well as courses in Emotional Intelligence, Team Dynamics and Influencing Skills. With an academic background in education, counselling and organisational dynamics, Margo brings a disciplined and reflective focus to her work.

Margo’s academic focus combines her extensive experience in leadership development and group dynamics with her love of animals and her interest in sustainability. Her doctorate work is in the ‘social politics of meat’, an exploration of what is talked about, and not talked about, concerning the animals we raise and consume. She has a particular interest in the ‘meat paradox’- the fact that we can both love and eat animals, and the cognitive dissonance and dissociation this entails. She is also an experienced board director, having spent 10 years on the boards of various environmental groups.

⏰  DURATION

120 minutes

‘Why He Orders the Steak’ An exploration of gender differences within the animal rights movement.

Description: With regards to attitudes to animals and vegetarian or vegan eating, there are significant differences between men and women. Women eat less meat, are more likely to be vegetarian or semi vegetarian, engage in grassroots animal advocacy, oppose animal research and join an animal protection organisation (Cooney, 2014, and Herzog, 2010). Various reasons have been put forward for this difference. These include:
• The feminist/ cultural perspective that because women have less power in the dominant culture, they are more alert to exploitation and disempowerment of other species (Adams, 1990).
• The ‘hormone’ argument that body chemistry affects our interactions with other species- oxytocin being instrumental in the human-animal bond, and testosterone having the opposite effect on empathy (Olmert, 2010).
• The societal perception that meat eating is a masculine activity, and that men need meat more than women do (Ruby & Heine, 2011).
• The ‘nurture’ theory that our culture instils more indifference to animal suffering in boys than girls (Luke, 2007).
• The notion that men and women are motivated by different values with regards to eating less meat: men being more motivated by health reasons, women by concern for animal welfare (Rothgerber, 2012).
• The argument that men and women tend to have different strategies for preventing the guilty feelings that come from eating meat (Cooney, 2014).
But what if we apply a psych-analytic lens to this question? Perhaps the early stages of ‘differentiation’ can give us clues as to why women are more inclined to empathise with animals and become active about animal welfare. The ‘separation-individuation’ process a child goes through as it moves from a “narcissistic relation to reality” (Chodorow, 1997) to a perceived demarcation between self and the object world could potentially shed light on the gender difference to identifying with, empathising with, and eating or choosing not to eat animals.

In this session, we will examine existing theories on the gender difference in the animal rights social movement, as well as explore a psycho-analytic perspective on how gender identity and a sense of masculinity and femininity develop for men and women, and how this development may lead to differences in viewing the ‘other’.

Finally, we will explore what these theories mean for activists in the movement for better treatment of animals. What implications does an awareness of the difference between the genders on the way we treat animals have for the animal rights movement?

References
Adams, C.J. (1990) The Sexual Politics of Meat. A Feminist- Vegetarian Critical Theory. 2017 Reprint. Bloomsbury, New York.
Chodorow, N. J. (1997) ‘Gender, Relation, and Difference in Psychoanalytic Perspective’. In Feminist Social Thought: A Reader, pp 8-20. Edited by Meyers, D.T., Routledge, London.
Cooney, N. (2014) Veganomics: The surprising science on what motivates vegetarians, from the breakfast table to the bedroom. CPSIA, USA.
Herzog, H. (2010) Some we Love, Some we Hate, Some we Eat Why it’s so Hard to Think Straight about Animals. HarperCollins, New York.
Luke, B. (2007) Brutal: Manhood and the Exploitation of Animals. University of Illinois Press, US.
Olmert, M. D. (2010) Made for Each Other: The Biology of the Human-Animal Bond. Little Brown, US.
Rothgerber, H. (2012) ‘Real Men Don’t Eat (Vegetable) Quiche: Masculinity and the Justification of Meat Consumption’. Psychology of Men and Masculinity 14(4), 363–375
Ruby, M.B. and Heine, S.J. (2011). ‘Meat, Morals and Masculinity’. In Appetite 56: pp447-450.

 

Day(s)

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Hour(s)

:

Minute(s)

:

Second(s)

Session schedule

5 MINS

Introduction

30 MINS

Paper presentation

20 MINS

Small group discussion; impressions of the paper and developing questions for the presenter

20 MINS

Discussion forum with the presenter; moderated for the speaker to elaborate their ideas

10 MINS

Discussion forum with the presenter; themes from the discussions

5 MINS

Break

30 MINS

Whole symposium open reflection discussion

Share this presentation!

Parallel Paper Presentations

The following are presenting at this time

Gilles Amado

GILLES AMADO

The Anti-Vax Movement: A gateway to amalgams?

Mark Argent

MARK ARGENT

“Organising protest”, in the light of Lacan’s perverse discourses

Margo Lockhart

MARGO LOCKART

“Why He Orders the Steak. An exploration of gender differences within the animal rights movement.”

Petros Oratis

PETROS ORATIS

Taming the Beast: Exploring the lateral dynamics between the social movement and its opposition side and the need to shift from polarization to co-existence.

Organising protest symposium paper 2022

Organising protest symposium paper 2022

Organising Protest:

Where is our Systems Psychodynamic thinking on

SOCIAL MOVEMENTS?

🔖 PRESENTATION

Paper (parallel)

📆  DATE

Thursday 8 Sep 2022

⏰  MELBOURNE TIME

7.00 - 9.00 pm

⏰  LOCAL START TIME

time start

Mr Mark Argent

Mr Mark Argent

Consultant, Mark Argent Consulting, UK

Mark Argent’s original training was in spiritual direction and retreat-giving, which lead into a growing interest in group relations and training with the Site for Contemporary Psychoanalysis. He’s also actively involved in British politics and was a Liberal Democrat candidate in the last three UK General Elections.

⏰  DURATION

120 minutes

“Organising protest”, in the light of Lacan’s perverse discourses

Organised protest has become a significant part of public life. Where it could once have been described as “anti-establishment”, the boundaries have become blurred.

In France, En Marche was a movement that became a political party and swept Emmanuel Macron to power. In the UK, the movement for Brexit can be seen as a protest — that’s managed to take control of government. In the US, Black Lives Matter was a protest that sparked a right-wing response that may well have been Donald Trump’s best hope of re-election, and the riots on 6 January 2021 saw the (then) President of the USA sparking a protest riot.

One way of thinking about this is systemic, asking what the protest holds for the system as a whole. But this doesn’t adequately explain how embedded some forms of protest become — such as anti-vaxxers and Covid-deniers — where it seems that facts have disappeared. Nor does it explain how protest can continue despite backfiring — such as the Extinction Rebellion climate change protests in the UK, which have been sufficiently destructive to undermine support for action on climate change.

In his shadow of the protests in France in 1968, Lacan formulated an idea of four discourses, Master, University, Analyst and Hysteric — to think about how people function in relation to the dominant way in which things are operating. Towards the end of his life he started to explore what happens to this when people attempt to deny lack, rather than engage with it, naming new discourses of Capitalism, Politics, the Movement, and Science. Philip Boxer has described these as perverse discourses, suggesting that the understanding of organisations and society needs all eight discourses. Lacanian thinking also suggests that engagement with lack is central to language — so the perverse discourses offer a way to make sense of the rise of “post truth” in public life.

That gives another way to think about organised protest and the way in which some protest movements get stuck where others are able to enable change.

The paper draws on a range of examples. On the journey of the United Reformed Church (UK) to its present gay-friendly position there was a sense that the Lesbian and Gay Christian Movement were so fixated on protesting that they played a minor role in bringing about the change they sought. In contemporary British the discourse of the movement offers a way to make sense of the turmoil unleashed by voting to leave the EU, and the near-impossibility of a meaningful campaign in the 2019 General Election. It also picks up on the dynamics within political parties which makes it difficult to turn “protest” into something that might be capable of being turned into action by being elected.

Kishore Mahbubani has suggested that the absence of a global government is hampering our ability to engage with global issues — such as pandemics and climate change. Another way of looking at the perverse discourses is that they arise from a failure of mature dependency — in a way reminiscent of Earl Hopper’s “basic assumption incohesion: massification / aggregation”. In an increasingly globalised world, dependency on national governments is working less well. Are protest movements one of the symptoms of this? How can that be navigated, as so much of our thinking is still conditioned by thinking along national lines.

 

References
Philip Boxer (2011): The perverse discourses, https://www.lacanticles.com/2011/10/26/the-perverse-discourses/

Earl Hopper (2003): Traumatic experience in the unconscious life of groups: The fourth basic assumption: Incohesion: Aggregation / Massification or (ba) I:A/M

Kishore Mahbubani (2014): Great Convergence: Asia, the West, and the Logic of One World Paperback

Day(s)

:

Hour(s)

:

Minute(s)

:

Second(s)

Session schedule

5 MINS

Introduction

30 MINS

Paper presentation

20 MINS

Small group discussion; impressions of the paper and developing questions for the presenter

20 MINS

Discussion forum with the presenter; moderated for the speaker to elaborate their ideas

10 MINS

Discussion forum with the presenter; themes from the discussions

5 MINS

Break

30 MINS

Whole symposium open reflection discussion

Share this presentation!

Parallel Paper Presentations

The following are presenting at this time

Gilles Amado

GILLES AMADO

The Anti-Vax Movement: A gateway to amalgams?

Mark Argent

MARK ARGENT

“Organising protest”, in the light of Lacan’s perverse discourses

Margo Lockhart

MARGO LOCKART

“Why He Orders the Steak. An exploration of gender differences within the animal rights movement.”

Petros Oratis

PETROS ORATIS

Taming the Beast: Exploring the lateral dynamics between the social movement and its opposition side and the need to shift from polarization to co-existence.

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